Traditionally, the waste water treatment plants have been designed as per the conservative guidelines and standards which were a result of the gradual development in the designs made before them. The methods and procedures to be applied and followed during the operation and maintenance of a treatment plant have hardly been modified with respect to the observations made on the site.
Urban settlements in urban areas especially over the past two decades have become the hotspots of greenhouse gas emissions around the globe. Amongst the rapid industrialization and urbanization in the developing countries in the world, almost every country has registered a steep rise in greenhouse gas emissions over the past two decades. A major fraction of these emissions originate due to anthropogenic activities like consumption of energy in residential, commercial and industrial sectors, transportation, municipal solid waste generation etc. and tend to absorb and emit the radiations emitted by earth’s surface at particular wavelengths within the thermal infrared radiation spectrum.
There are two major types of ways in which municipal biological waste is composted to organic manure with a certain amount of volume reduction.